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APA Citation Guidelines

APA General Guidelines

This first video demonstrates the requirements for the APA page setup, title page, running headers, and other formatting guidelines.

Permission to use APA Format in Word in 4 Minutes granted by author Colin Murphy, Ed. D

APA In-Text Citations in the Body of Your Paper

APA citations follow specific conventions that distinguish them from other styles.This video will show you what in-text citations should look like and explain why you must use them.

Documenting Sources at the End of Your Paper

Every cited source from your essay should appear in your References page, which comes at the end of the essay. 

The References page must conform to the following rules:

  • Begin on a separate page at the end of your essay, using the same format as your essay (i.e., one-inch margins, running head, and page number).
  • Entries in your list of references should be alphabetized by the authors’ last names. Use the title, if a work does not have an author.
  • Center the word References at the top of the page.
  • Double-space all references.

In this video on APA format, you’ll see a sample references list with some tips on creating a references list of your own. 

Title Page 

Body of Paper 

References Page

The References Page

Placement

According to APA style guidelines, the references page should appear after the body of your paper. It should begin on a new page, and the pagination should continue from the body of the paper.

General format

The references page should be double-spaced throughout. The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin; if the entry extends more than one line, ensuing lines should be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. The first page of the works cited list should have the title "References," not "Bibliography." The references title should appear in the same manner as the paper's title: capitalized and centered—not bolded, within quotation marks, italicized, underlined, or in a larger font.

Entries

The entries should be alphabetized based on the author's last name. If no name is provided for a given source, the title of the work/webpage will take the place of the author's last name and should still be placed in its proper alphabetical location. Here are some guidelines for commonly used sources:

APA In-Text Citations

See below examples of how to handle APA citations in the body of your text.

Direct Quotes

A direct quote is a word for word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote.

Author before Quotation

Author after Quotation

Block Quotes

The block quote is used for direct quotations that are longer than 40 words. The block format is a freestanding quote that does not include quotation marks. Introduce the block quote on a new line. Indent the entire quote ½ inch or 5-7 spaces. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Also include the author's last name, date of publication, and page numbers (if available).

Author at the Beginning

Author at End

Paraphrase 

A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult to understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.

The APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication. Page numbers are encouraged but optional.

Author at Beginning, No Page Number

Author at Beginning, With Page Number

Author at End, No Page Number

Author at End, With Page Number

Authors in Text

See examples below to learn about how multiple authors for one work are handled in APA parenthetical citations.

No Author

Include the first few words from the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year if no author is given. Article, chapter and web page titles go in quotation marks. Italicize periodical, book and report titles.

1 Author

2 Authors

3-5 Authors

First citation in text:

Subsequent citations:

6+ Authors

.

About the Sample APA In-Text Citations

Based off the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010. Creators are Jen Klaudinyi, Robert Monge. URL is https://www.wou.edu/provost/library/clip/apa/CLIP tutorial is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

What is a DOI, a digital object identifier?

A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. Because the DOI insures findability for the object, citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian, etc.) are starting to request the use of a DOI in a citation for e-journal content.

All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher.

Below are some methods that can be used to obtain DOIs:

  • If a journal publisher uses DOIs, they will usually print the DOI somewhere on the first page of the article.
  • Some of the online resources used to search for articles on topics will supply DOIs in the citations. View the full citation to see if a DOI is included.

How do I cite an article with a DOI?

     A DOI number does not affect the in-text citation of an article, but it does change the reference entry slightly. An article with a DOI number would use the following reference -

How to cite a journal article with a digital object identifier (DOI)

Original source of example (catalogue/database record):

 

Journal Article from a Library Database with DOI

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Potter, C. A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play, and education of

         children with autismJournal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability,

         42(4), 375-384.doi:10.3109/13668250.2016.1245851

Paraphrased: (Potter, 2017)

Quotation: (Potter, 2017, p. 380)

 

 

 

Journal Article from a Library Database without DOI

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

 Potter, C. A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play, and education of

          children with autismJournal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability,

          42(4), 375-384. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cjid20/current

Paraphrased: (Potter, 2017)

Quotation: (Potter, 2017, p. 380)

 

 

Note: APA 6th ed. states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time and may not be retrievable from that database down the road (p. 192). Instead of the database URL, you should put the URL of the journal homepage the article is located in.

You can find the journal homepage URL in the database record (along with all other information used for citations) or you can type the name of the journal in Google to find the journal homepage. If there is a DOI provided always use it in place of a URL.

 

Article with Two Authors

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Hamlin, D.A., & Potter, C.D. (2015). Angry dads create angry lads. Journal

        of Fatherhood,11(3), 222-238. Retrieved from

          https://www.tc.journal.com/

Paraphrased: (Hamlin & Potter, 2015)

Quotation: (Hamlin & Potter, 2015, p. 228)

 

 

 

Article with 3-5 Authors

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Follow the same format as if you were citing an article with

two authors. Do not forget the (&) before the last author.

All other formatting guidelines remain the same.

Paraphrased: (Knox, Collins, & Wilmer, 2015)

Subsequent Citations: (Knox, et. al., 2015)

Quotation: (Knox, Collins, & Wilmer, 2015, p. 25)

Subsequent Citations: Knox, et. al., 2015, p. 27)

 

 

Note: After you list the first in text citation, you do not need to list all of the authors for subsequent in-text citations.

 

eBook from a Library Database

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Glendenning, D. K. (2007). Our place in the universe. Retrieved from

        EBSCO eBooks (EBSCOhost) database

Paraphrased: (Glendenning, 2007)

Quotation: (Glendenning, 2007, p. 156)

 

 

 

Online Magazine Article

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Georgiou, A. (2019, June 03). These stone tools made 2.6 million years are the

        oldest of their kind. Newsweek, 122(6). Retrieved from

        https://www.newsweek.com/ 

Paraphrased: (Georgiou, 2019)

Quotation: (Georgiou, 2019, para. 5)

 

 

Note: Since online newspaper and magazines articles typically do not include page numbers you can cite the paragraph (para.) number to reference direct quotes for in-text citations.

 

Online Newspaper Article

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Hays, J.D. (2016, May 15). Why I want to be abducted by aliens. The Daily Bugle.

        Retrieved from http://www.dailybugle.com/

Paraphrased: (Hays, 2016)

Quotation: (Hays, 2016, para. 3)

 

 

Note: According to APA 6th edition, you should provide the URL of the newspaper homepage when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs (201).

Since online newspaper and magazines articles typically do not include page numbers you can cite the paragraph (para.) number to reference direct quotes for in-text citations.

 

Article from a Website with Author

Reference Page Citation In-Text Citation
   

Wu, B. (2017, March 15). Kawasaki disease: What you need to know.

        Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/164533.php

Paraphrased: (Wu, 2019)

Quotation: (Wu, 2017, para. 2)

 

 

 

Article from a Website without Author

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