Gives a basic introduction to the creation of APA style references for college students.
Gives a basic introduction to the creation of APA style in-text citations for college students.
Body of Paper
APA In-Text Citations
See below examples of how to handle APA citations in the body of your text.
A direct quote is a word for word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote.
Author before Quotation
Author after Quotation
The block quote is used for direct quotations that are longer than 40 words. The block format is a freestanding quote that does not include quotation marks. Introduce the block quote on a new line. Indent the entire quote ½ inch or 5-7 spaces. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Also include the author's last name, date of publication, and page numbers (if available).
Author at the Beginning
Author at End
A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult to understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.
The APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication. Page numbers are encouraged but optional.
Author at Beginning, No Page Number
Author at Beginning, With Page Number
Author at End, No Page Number
Author at End, With Page Number
Authors in Text
See examples below to learn about how multiple authors for one work are handled in APA parenthetical citations.
Include the first few words from the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year if no author is given. Article, chapter and web page titles go in quotation marks. Italicize periodical, book and report titles.
First citation in text:
About the Sample APA In-Text Citations
Based off the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010. Creators are Jen Klaudinyi, Robert Monge. URL is https://www.wou.edu/provost/library/clip/apa/. CLIP tutorial is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA.