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APA Citation Guidelines

Presents the most important basic concepts for college students who need to cite sources in APA Style. 

 
This work, “Basics of Citing: APA”, is a derivative of Basics of Citing in APA by Kirkwood Libraries, used under CC BY. “Basics of Citing: APA” is licensed under CC BY by Pamela Galovich

Gives a basic introduction to the creation of APA style references for college students.

This work, “Basics of Formatting References: APA”, is a derivative of Basics of Formatting References: APA Citations by Kirkwood Libraries, used under CC BY. “Basics of Formatting References: APA” is licensed under CC BY by Pamela Galovich

Gives a basic introduction to the creation of APA style in-text citations for college students.

This work, “Basics of Formatting References: APA”, is a derivative of Basics of In Text Citations in APA Format by Kirkwood Libraries used under CC BY. “Basics of Formatting References: APA” is licensed under CC BY by Pamela Galovich

Title Page 

Body of Paper 

References Page

The References Page

Placement

According to APA style guidelines, the references page should appear after the body of your paper. It should begin on a new page, and the pagination should continue from the body of the paper.

General format

The references page should be double-spaced throughout. The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin; if the entry extends more than one line, ensuing lines should be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. The first page of the works cited list should have the title "References," not "Bibliography." The references title should appear in the same manner as the paper's title: capitalized and centered—not bolded, within quotation marks, italicized, underlined, or in a larger font.

Entries

The entries should be alphabetized based on the author's last name. If no name is provided for a given source, the title of the work/webpage will take the place of the author's last name and should still be placed in its proper alphabetical location. Here are some guidelines for commonly used sources:

APA In-Text Citations

See below examples of how to handle APA citations in the body of your text.

Direct Quotes

A direct quote is a word for word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote.

Author before Quotation

Author after Quotation

Block Quotes

The block quote is used for direct quotations that are longer than 40 words. The block format is a freestanding quote that does not include quotation marks. Introduce the block quote on a new line. Indent the entire quote ½ inch or 5-7 spaces. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Also include the author's last name, date of publication, and page numbers (if available).

Author at the Beginning

Author at End

Paraphrase 

A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult to understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.

The APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication. Page numbers are encouraged but optional.

Author at Beginning, No Page Number

Author at Beginning, With Page Number

Author at End, No Page Number

Author at End, With Page Number

Authors in Text

See examples below to learn about how multiple authors for one work are handled in APA parenthetical citations.

No Author

Include the first few words from the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year if no author is given. Article, chapter and web page titles go in quotation marks. Italicize periodical, book and report titles.

1 Author

2 Authors

3-5 Authors

First citation in text:

Subsequent citations:

6+ Authors

.

About the Sample APA In-Text Citations

Based off the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010. Creators are Jen Klaudinyi, Robert Monge. URL is https://www.wou.edu/provost/library/clip/apa/CLIP tutorial is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

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