MLA Eighth Edition
The latest edition of the MLA Handbook focuses on the elements common to most publications through the use of one standard citation format. There are no special instructions for a particular media type (e.g., book, magazine, journal, or tweet) and there may be more than one way to document a publication depending on how you used the source. The ultimate goal is to provide enough information for the reader to locate your source.
MLA’s Universal Citation Format
Author. "Title of Source." Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher,
Publication Date, Location. [Title of Container 2, Other Contributors, Version, Number,
Publisher, Publication Date, Location.]
What is a “container?”
MLA uses the word “container” to refer to the larger body of work from which the documented source originates.
For example, Melissa uses information from a chapter in a psychology textbook for her research paper. The title of the chapter is the source and the title of the book is the container:
A source may have more than one container depending on how it is accessed.
For example, Tom uses an episode of a TV series that is available on Netflix for his research paper. The series title is the first container and Netflix is the second container.
As another example, Kim uses an article he finds in an online database for his research paper. The journal title is the first container and EBSCO is the second container.
What are “other contributors?”
Other contributors are individuals other than the author that are important to include in a citation. In the above example, Tom may be discussing particular performances in the Gossip Girl episode and would include the actors in his citation:
Common descriptions for contributions include: adapted by, directed by, edited by, illustrated by, introduction by, narrated by, performance by, and translated by.
What is a “version?”
A version can be an edition, revision, abridged/unabridged or other special format of the source. Some examples:
What does "location" mean?
The location may be page numbers, a web address or a DOI. It is not the publisher's city.
What about the date of access?
It is important to include the date an item was accessed if there is potential for change to or removal of the item, such as websites or social media posts. This is also important to include if there is no date of publication. Including the date of access will help the reader further understand which version of the item you are using.
For example, Tom may want to include the date of access for his TV show since Netflix frequently adds and removes content:
A few more examples
For a website with no author and no publication date, start the citation with the title of the source:
For an organization as an author, place the name of the organization as the author:
For two authors, list the authors as they appear on the work. The first author is listed last name, first name and the second author is listed first name last name:
For three or more authors, list the first author last name, first name followed by et al.:
It may be helpful to use a template to gather necessary information. A downloadable template is available on the last tab in the MLA section of this website.
Citation Formatting Tips:
Works Cited Page Formatting:
Sevastopoulos, Julie. “Citing Sources.” Grammar-Quizzes, 2016, www.grammar-quizzes.com/writing_citations.html.
MLA In-Text Citations
See below examples of how to handle MLA citations in the body of your text.
A direct quote is a word-for-word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's name and page numbers. If your quote is more than 4 lines long, use a block quote.
Author Incorporated into text
Author after quotation
The block quote is used for quotations that are longer than 4 lines. Do not use quotation marks. Introduce the block quote on a new line. Indent the entire quote 1 inch from the left margin. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Be sure to specify the source in the introduction phrase/sentence, which ends in either a colon or period.
A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain jargon or difficult to understand information in terms the reader can easily understand. MLA requires you to include the author's name and page number.
Author Incorporated into text
Author after paraphrase
A summary is a condensed version of a longer passage from a outside source. Like a paraphrase, it is written in your own words. MLA requires you to include the author's name and page number.
Author incorporated into text
Author after summary
When possible, cite information directly. If you must cite a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. Include the secondary source in parentheses with the abbreviation "qtd. in" (quoted in). Include the indirect source and in your works cited list.
In this example, "Johns" should appear in your works cited list.
About the Sample MLA In-Text Citations
Based off the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers published in 2009. Creators are Jen Klaudinyi, Robert Monge. URL is https://www.wou.edu/provost/library/clip/mla/. CLIP tutorial is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA
What is a DOI, a digital object identifier?
A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. Because the DOI insures findability for the object, citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian, etc.) are starting to request the use of a DOI in a citation for e-journal content.
All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher.
Below are some methods that can be used to obtain DOIs:
How do I cite an article with a DOI?
A DOI number does not affect the in-text citation of an article, but it does change the reference entry slightly. An article with a DOI number would use the following reference -
How to cite a journal article with a digital object identifier (DOI)
MLA Headings, Headers and Page Set-Up
MLA formatting can seem a little confusing at first, and it is helpful to view a sample MLA paper when you are new to this documentation style. The following short video by the Excelsior Online Writing Lab (OWL) demonstrates the requirements for the MLA heading, headers, and page set up.
MLA In-Text Citation
This second video will show you what in-text citations should look like and explain why you must use them.