Psychology 234 (Holt)

Social Media & Interpersonal Relationships


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Erin Roper
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Psychology 234 (Holt)

Start here to get background information and develop your thesis:


social media

social media AND interpersonal relationships

social media AND parent

social media AND dat* NOT data

social media AND friendship

Search here for journal articles to support your thesis:


social media

social media AND interpersonal relations

social media AND parent*

social media AND dat* NOT data*

social media and friendship

social media AND (adolescent OR teenager)

social media AND young adult

  • EBSCO & Gale

If you need more information or sources, try the following:

Formatting an APA paper in Microsoft Word

Example of an APA Paper

Title Page 

Body of Paper 

References Page

This part of the guide includes explanations and examples for in-text citations followed by explanations and examples for the APA reference page.

APA In-Text Citations

See below examples of how to handle APA citations in the body of your text.

Direct Quotes

A direct quote is a word for word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote.

Author before Quotation

Author after Quotation

Block Quotes

The block quote is used for direct quotations that are longer than 40 words. The block format is a freestanding quote that does not include quotation marks. Introduce the block quote on a new line. Indent the entire quote ½ inch or 5-7 spaces. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Also include the author's last name, date of publication, and page numbers (if available).

Author at the Beginning

Author at End


A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult to understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.

The APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication. Page numbers are encouraged but optional.

Author at Beginning, No Page Number

Author at Beginning, With Page Number

Author at End, No Page Number

Author at End, With Page Number

Authors in Text

See examples below to learn about how multiple authors for one work are handled in APA parenthetical citations.

No Author

Include the first few words from the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year if no author is given. Article, chapter and web page titles go in quotation marks. Italicize periodical, book and report titles.

1 Author

2 Authors

3-5 Authors

First citation in text:

Subsequent citations:

6+ Authors


Based off the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010. Creators are Jen Klaudinyi, Robert Monge. URL is tutorial is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA


The References Page


According to APA style guidelines, the references page should appear after the body of your paper. It should begin on a new page, and the pagination should continue from the body of the paper.

General format

The references page should be double-spaced throughout. The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin; if the entry extends more than one line, ensuing lines should be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. The first page of the works cited list should have the title "References," not "Bibliography." The references title should appear in the same manner as the paper's title: capitalized and centered—not bolded, within quotation marks, italicized, underlined, or in a larger font.


The entries should be alphabetized based on the author's last name. If no name is provided for a given source, the title of the work/webpage will take the place of the author's last name and should still be placed in its proper alphabetical location. Here are some guidelines for commonly used sources:

This portion of the guide briefly describes plagiarism and appropriate paraphrasing. In-depth tutorials are available in the toolbar on the left side of the screen.

Visit the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for writing and APA help.

What is Plagiarism?    

You Quote It, You Note It! is an 10 minute interactive tutorial created by the Acadia University Library that describes the act of plagiarism, and differentiates between paraphrasing and quoting. Click on the title to play the tutorial.

Examples of Acceptable and Unacceptable Paraphrasing  

The examples below will show you how paraphrase correctly. They're adapted from Paraphrasing by University Libraries, University of Arizona with its gracious permission.

Here's the original text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.:

The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.

Here's an unacceptable paraphrase:

The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

What makes this passage plagiarism?

This is unacceptable paraphrasing because the writer has:

  • only changed a few words and phrases
  • only changed the order of the original's sentences
  • failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts

Here's an acceptable paraphrase:

Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the U.S., they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (Williams 1).

Why is this passage acceptable?

  • accurately relays the information in the original using his/her own words
  • lets the reader know the source of information

Here's an another acceptable paraphrase, using a quotation and paraphrase together:

Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. As steam-powered production shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into factory workers" and created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populations increased the size of urban areas. Fall River was one of these manufacturing hubs that were also "centers of commerce and trade" (Williams 1).

Why is this passage acceptable?

  • accurately records the information in the original passage
  • gives credit for the ideas in this passage
  • indicated which part is taken directly from the source by putting the passage in quotation marks and citing the page number

 Strategies for avoiding plagiarism

1. Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text, especially when taking notes.

2. When you paraphrase, be sure you're not just rearranging or replacing a few words. Instead, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully; cover up the text with your hand, or close the text so you can't see any of it (and so aren't tempted to use the text as a "guide"). Write out the idea in your own words without peeking.

3. Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you haven't accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.

Contact the MCC Library if you need help finding or evaluating sources.

During fall and spring semesters, the Library is open Monday - Thursday from 8:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M., Friday from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

You can also email

Contact the Student Success Center if you need help writing, editing or formatting your paper.

During fall and spring semesters, tutors are available Monday - Thursday from 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. and Friday from 10:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. 

SmartThinking online tutoring also has tutors who will review your paper. You can access SmartThinking through Schoology at the bottom of the lefthand toolbar.

MCC Connect can transfer your call to the Library, Student Success Center or your professor. Call 866-664-2832.

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