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Title, Abstract, and Reference Page Format (APA): Home

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This page contains information on Title, Abstract, and Reference page format according to APA 7th edition using the Concise Guide to APA Style: The Official APA Style for Students.

Other Title Page Information

Title: Summarizes the main idea of your paper (the shorter the better) and is in title case (see Style and Format page).

Author: Include the first name, middle initial, and last name. If there are two authors separate the names by the word "and." If there are three or more authors separate the names with a comma and include the word "and" before the final name.

Page number: Yes, your title page has a page number. It will always be page 1.

Running head: Is not required for student papers, but check with your instructor to see if they prefer one.

Title Page

(See sections 1.6 - 1.9 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)


A brief and comprehensive summary of the contents of your paper. Abstracts are typically NOT required for student papers, UNLESS the instructor request that you include one (so check before you turn in your final paper). Abstracts are short, typically no longer than 250 words.

Abstracts appear on their own page after the title page with the label "Abstract" centered and in bold at the top. The abstract will always be page 2 of your paper.

Abstracts are written as a SINGLE paragraph. DO NOT indent the paragraph.

. A good abstract is

Accurate: Make sure that the abstract correctly reflects the purpose and content of the paper. Do NOT include information that does not appear in the text

Nonevaluative: Report rather than evaluate. Do NOT add to or comment on what is in the text

Coherent and readable: Write in clear and deliberate language. Use active rather than passive voice (e.g., "investigated" rather than "an investigation of"). Use present tense to describe conclusions or results. Use past tense to describe specific variables manipulated outcomes measured.

Concise: Be short, concise, and BRIEF. Begin the abstract with the most important points (include the most important four or five). Do NOT repeat the title of your paper in the abstract.


(See sections 1.10 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

Reference Page

(See section 1.12  and sections 9.42 - 9.49 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)