Mohave Community College Libraries

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APA Citation Guidelines (7th ed.)

Contents: The information on this page is from the 7th Edition of Concise Guide to APA Style: The Official APA Style Guide for Students. There are slight differences between student and professional papers in APA 7th Edition. Note: Always check with your instructor to see if there are specific style or formatting guidelines they wish you to use.

Why is correct formatting important? First, many careers require you to have good attention to detail such as nursing, computer coding, and welding. Take it as an opportunity to practice this vital skill. Next, incorrect formatting and other errors will lead readers to question your credibility and understanding of the material. Finally, instructors will deduct points from your paper if the formatting is incorrect.

Overall Style & Format

  • Approved fonts: Times New Roman 12, Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucinda Sans 10, and Georgia 11.
    • Check with your instructor for which font and size they want you to use.
    • Use the same font and size throughout your paper.
  • Running heads are not required for student papers.
  • All pages have the page number in the top right header.
  • Double-space the entire paper and use 1" margins.
  • Indent paragraphs 1/2 inch by hitting "Tab" once.
  • Use one space after a period ending a sentence.
  • Use "they" as a singular pronoun when it is used by a person as their preferred pronoun or when the gender of a person is not known.

Title Page 

The title page includes the following elements in the order given:

  • Title of the paper:
    • Summarizes the main idea of the paper (the shorter, the better).
    • Bolded and centered 3-4 lines down from the top margin.
    • The title is in Title Case.
    • If there is a sub-title, separate it from the main title with a double-spaced line.
  • Name of the author:
    • ​Include first name, middle initial and last name. Example: Evan L. Cartwright.
    • Include one double-spaced line between the title and the author's name.
    • For a group project, include all of the authors' names:
      • Names go on the same line with spillover onto additional lines if needed.
      • For two authors, separate the names by the word "and." Example: Evan L. Cartwright and Thomas P. Morgan.
      • If there are three or more authors, separate the names with a comma and include the word "and" before the final name. Example: Evan L. Cartwright, Thomas P. Morgan, Danielle A. Morton, and Kyle L. Winters.
  • Author affiliation (name of college or university):
    • Use Mohave Community College
  • Course number and name:
    • Use the course code and official name. Example: AST 101: Introduction to Astronomy 
  • Instructor name:
    • ​Use your instructor's name as it appears in the syllabus. 
  • Assignment due date:
    • Put the assignment due date in the month, date, and year format. Example: July 17, 2020.

In-text Citation Basics

 
  • Use the Author-Date format for in-text citations. Example: (Morgan, 2015).
    • In-text citations go at the end of the paraphrased or quoted information.
    • ​​Narrative citations are also acceptable. To learn more about this method, explore the APA Resources tab at the top of the page or contact a librarian.
    • Two authors use first author & second author, year on all in-text citations.
      • Example: (Jenson & Frank, 2019)
    • Three or more authors abbreviate to first author et al. on all in-text citations.
      • Example: (Morgan et al., 2015).
    • Periods go after the in-text citation.
  • Direct quotes require a page number in your in-text citation.
    • Use the abbreviation "p." for a quote that appears on one page.
      • Example: (Morgan, 2015, p. 175).
    • Use the abbreviation "pp." for quotes that span more than one page.
      • Example: (Morgan, 2015, pp. 175-176).
    • If you are quoting from a source that does not have page numbers (online newspaper, website etc...), use paragraph (para.) numbers by counting the paragraphs.
      • Example: (Morgan, 2015, para. 4). 
  • Put short (less than 40 words) quotes in quotations marks. If the quote is 40 words or more use a block quote:
    • ​Start a block quote on a new line.
    • Indent the entire quote 1/2 inch.
    • Cite at the end of the quote.
    • Many instructors do not allow long quotes. They want you to paraphrase the information instead. Check with your instructor before using a block quote or you could lose points.
  • All sources cited in-text must appear in your reference list.
  • Refer to the In-text Citation Table as needed

Reference List Basics

 
 

Visit the Electronic Citation and Print Citation tabs at the top of this page for specific examples.

  • Start the reference list on a new page and put "References" centered at the top in bold text.
  • Entries are double-spaced (both within and between entries) and in alphabetical order.
  • Use a 1/2 inch hanging indent for references that have more than one line. The first line of the reference will be flush left, but additional lines will be indented 1/2 inch. Use CTRL+Tab in MS Word for hanging indents.
  • Spell out the names of up to 20 authors on the reference page.
  • Use sentence case for the names of articles, books, reports, and websites.
  • Hyperlinks:
    • ​Include the https:// at the beginning of the URL.
    • Links can either be "live" in blue with underline or black without underlining.

The examples below are some of the common citation type for reference list entries and subsequent in-text citations.

Review the sections: Reference List Basics and In-text Citation Basics located in the Style, Format, & Citation Guidelines tab above before completing the reference list. 

 

Journal Articles Newspapers
eBooks                                                    Reports
Magazine Articles                              Social Media/Personal Communications
Movies/Films/Videos         Websites/Webpages/Images                        

Journal Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Journal Article with a DOI from a Database (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article. DOI as a hyperlink

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Potter, C.A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play and education of

     children with autism. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental

     Disability, 42(4), 375-384. https:doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2016.1245851

 Paraphrase: (Potter, 2017)

 Quote: (Potter, 2017, p. 378)

 


 Journal Article from a Database with a DOI (two to twenty authors)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Amorisco, N.C., Evans, N.W., & Van de Ven, G. (2014). The remnant of a

      merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature, 507(749),

      335-337. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12995

 Paraphrase: (Amorisco et al., 2014)

 Quote: (Amorisco et al., 2014, p. 336)

 

Note: Separate the authors' names with a comma between them.  For the last author listed, put an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's name. You must include all names for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors, after the 19th author, put three ellipses (...) and then add the final author's name.


Journal Article from a Database without a DOI (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Anarde, S. (2019). Home sweet home: Aging in place in rural America 

      Generations, 43(2), 17-23.

 

 Paraphrased: (Anarde, 2019)

 Quotation: (Anarde, 2019, p. 20)

 

Note:​ APA (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. See Section 9.30 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) 


 

eBooks: See section 10.2 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed) for additional examples. Place of publication, database information or URL is not required for reference page citations.

 

eBooks from a Library Database (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Glendenning, D.K. (2007). Our place in the universe. Imperial College.

 

 

 Paraphrase: (Glendenning, 2007)

 Quote: (Glendenning, 2007, p. 45)


eBooks from a Library Database (two to twenty authors)

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Scott, S., & Duncan, C.J. (2001). Biology of plagues: Evidence from

      historical populations. Cambridge University Press.

 Paraphrase: (Scott & Duncan, 2001)

 Quote: (Scott & Duncan, 2001, p. 27) 


 

Magazine Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Magazine Article from a Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Birrell, A. (2018, August 10). Reduce airborne hazards while welding. 

      Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 52(8), 14-15. 

 Paraphrase: (Birrell, 2018)

 Quote: (Birrell, 2018, p. 14)

 

Note: magazine articles often do not have DOI's. Include the DOI at the end of the reference if one is provided.


Magazine Article from an Online Magazine

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number (Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number (if given). URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Seabrook, J. (2020, June 22). The promise and the peril of virtual

      healthcare. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/

      2020/06/29/the-promise-and-the-peril-of-virtual-health-care

 

 

 Paraphrase: (Seabrook, 2020)

 Quote: (Seabrook, 2020, p. 23)

 

 

 

Note: Omit any information that is missing (volume, issue, or page number range), which is often the case for magazine articles from online.


 

Movies/Films/Videos: See section 10.10 of Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

YouTube, Vimeo, etc... Video

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video]. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Martin, T.M. [MartinT]. (2019, August 22). Martin's 85 rules of grammar

      mastery [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/n1_sr89jEFTD

 

 Paraphrase:  (Martin, 2019)

 Quote: (Martin, 2019, 10:18 )

 

Note: For citation purposes the person or organization who uploaded the video is considered the author. If you do not have the author's  full name, begin the citation with their user name without the brackets.

Provide a time stamp if you need to cite a quotation of the clip.


TED Talk (from TED website)

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of speaker if known. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website (TED Conferences). url

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Smoot, G. (2008, May 12). The design of the universe [Video]. Ted

      Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/george_smoot_the_design_

      of_the_universe

   

 Paraphrase: (Smoot, 2008)

 Quote: (Smoot, 2008, 08:15)

 

 

 

Note: Use the name of the speaker as the author if the TED Talk comes directly from TED's website.

If the TED Talk is posted on YouTube, put the owner of the YouTube account as the author (TED) and then cite the talk as a YouTube video (see example).


Movie or Film (DVD, Streaming Service, Theater)

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title of movie [Film]. Production Company.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Reiner, C. (Director). (1985). Summer rental. [Film] Paramount Pictures

      Corp.

 

 Paraphrase: (Reiner, 1985)

 Quote: (Reiner, 1985: 21:35)

 

Note: If the director is unknown, use someone who is in a similar role (producer, writer) in place of the director. Provide a time stamp if you need to cite a quotation.

It is not required to include to the format of a movie, but at times it is helpful. Put the format or special edition in the square brackets after "Film" with a semi-colon followed by description [Film; directors cut DVD]


Films on Demand (Clip or Full Video)

Title of Movie [Film]. (Year of Publication).  Production Company.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

 Chemical chains in nature [Film]. (2019). Evermore Productions.

 

 Paraphrase: (Chemical Chains, 2019)

 Quote: (Chemical Chains, 2019, 18:35)

Note: The Films on Demand database contains  full length videos, clips, and TV episodes. You should begin your citation with the title of the video instead of the director because the director is typically not listed in Films on Demand.


 

Newspapers: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Newspaper Article from a Database

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Newspaper.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Rossman, J (2018, September 9). Are you ready for 5G? The moto Z3

      will be. Dallas Morning News.

 Paraphrase: (Rossman, 2018)

 Quote: (Rossman, 2018, para. 4)

 


Newspaper Article from an Online Newspaper

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Wehner, M. (2020, June 22). This startup will send you to space in a

      balloon for $125,000. New York Posthttps://nypost.com/2020/06/22/

      this-startup-will-send-you-to-space-in-a-balloon-for-125000/

 Paraphrase: (Wehner, 2020)

 Quote: (Wehner, 2020, para. 3)

 


Newspaper Article/Webpage from a News Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of News Website. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

La Monica, P.R. (2020, June 22). Virgin Galactic will help train astronauts for

       NASA. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/22/business/virgin-galactic-

      astronauts-nasa/index.html

 Paraphrase: (La Monica, 2020)

 Quote: (La Monica, 2020, para. 5)

 

Note: Use this to format articles published in online news sources (CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, Huff Post etc...).


Reports: Including government, technical, and research reports from agencies and organizations. See section 10.4 of Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Report by a Government Agency or other Organization (group author)

Name of Government Department or agency or Name of Organization. (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (see note). URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Defense Intelligence Agency. (2019). Challenges to space security

      https://www.dia.mil/Portals/27/Documents/News/Military%20Power

      %20Publications/Space_Threat_V14_020119_sm.pdf

 Paraphrase: (Defense Intelligence Agency, 2019)

 Quote: (Defense Intelligence Agency, 2019, p. 16)

Note: Group authors include government agencies, departments, non-profit organizations, tasks forces, and more. According to the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.): "The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher" (Section 9.11).


Report by a Government Agency or other Organization (individual author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Agency or Organization. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Hammes, T. X. (2020). An affordable defense of Asia. Atlantic Council. 

      https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/An-

      Affordable-Defense-of-Asia-Report.pdf

 Paraphrase: (Hammes, 2020)

 Quote: (Hammes, 2020, p. 18)

 


 

Social Media/Personal Communications:  See sections 8.9,10.1, and 10.13 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First initial. Second Initial. or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Pohjoismaki, J. (2020, June 10). What do dog breeds tell about the

      makings of our best friends -- and us? On Biology. https://blogs.

      biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2020/06/10/what-do-the-dog-

      breeds-tell-about-the-makings-of-our-best-friends-and-us/

 Paraphrase:  (Pohjoismaki, 2020)

 Quote:  (Pohjoismaki, 2020, para. 3) 

 

 


Online Forum or Message Board Post

Poster's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. or Name of Organization that posted message [username if known]. (Year message was posted, Month Day). Title of forum post [Online forum post]. Name of Forum. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September

      12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting  

      to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post].

      Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/

      im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/

 Paraphrase: (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018)

 Quote: (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018, para. 2)

 

 

Note: Many online communities have forums and message boards. Examples include Reddit, Quora, Flickr, and many more. 


Personal Communications

(First Initial of communicator. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year interview took place or e-mail was received)

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

There is no reference list entry for information cited as a personal

      communication because readers cannot retrieve the information.

      However, you do need to provide an in-text citation.

 Paraphrase/Quote: 

(C.D. Willard, personal communication, May 27, 2019)

 

Note: Personal communications consist of emails, text messages, online chats/direct messages, personal interviews, telephone call/interviews, and more that are not published. See section 8.9 of the Concise Guide to APA (7th ed.) for a complete list.


 

Websites/Webpages/Images: .See section 10.14 of Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples. Dates are often provided at the bottom of webpages, if there is no date provide for a webpage, put (n.d.) where the date goes in the citation.

 

Webpage on a Website (individual author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). Website name. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2017, January 17). How to break the busy cycle. Mayo

      Clinichttps://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-

      depth/how-to-break-the-busy-cycle/art-20269953

 Paraphrase: (Martin Lillie, 2017)

 Quote: (Martin Lillie, 2017, para. 5)

 


Webpage on a Website (group or organization author)

Group/Organization's Name. (Year webpage was updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, June 25). Your 

      health:Y Older adultshttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/

      need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

 Paraphrase: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)

 Quote: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, para. 3)

 


Images

Artist or Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork or image [Format]. Name of Website or Location. URL

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Rod, E. (2019). Mouse kidney section [Online image]. Wikimedia

Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mouse_Kidney_Section.jpg

 Paraphrase: (Rod, 2019)

 Quote: (N/A)

 

Note: Images and other visual works should be cited as any other type of work. If you provide an image of the text in your paper, it is generally accompanied by a caption. Check with your instructor to see if this is necessary.

The examples below are some of the common citation type for reference list entries and subsequent in-text citations.

Review the sections: Reference List Basics and In-text Citation Basics located in the Style, Format, & Citation Guidelines tab above before completing the reference list. 

Journal Articles
Books                                              
Magazine and Newspaper Articles                      
Encyclopedias and other Reference Works

Journal Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Journal Article in Print (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Melrose, S. (2019). Late life depression: Nursing actions that can

help. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 55(3), 453-458.

 Paraphrase: (Melrose, 2019)

 Quote: (Melrose, 2019, p. 455)


 Journal Article in Print (two to twenty authors)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Verma, M., Saini, A.K., & Nawal, R.R. (2011). Role of ethics in dental

marketing. Journal of Management Research, 11(3), 159-167.

 Paraphrase: (Verma et al., 2011)

 Quote: (Verma et al., 2011, p. 163)

Note: Separate the authors' names with a comma between them.  For the last author listed, put an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's name. You must include all names for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors, after the 19th author, put three ellipses (...) and then add the final author's name.


Books: See section 10.2 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed) for additional examples. Place of publication is not required in reference page citations.

 

Book in Print (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if  given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Katznelson, I. (2013). Fear itself: The New Deal and the origins of our

time. Liverlight Publishing.

 Paraphrase: (Katznelson, 2013)

 Quote: (Katzneslon, 2013, p. 29)


Book in Print (two to twenty authors)

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened). 

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Cassell, K.A., & Hiremath, U. (2013). Reference and information services:

An introduction (3rd ed.). Neal-Schuman.

 Paraphrase: (Cassell & Hiremath, 2013)

 Quote: (Cassell & Hiremath, 2013, p. 22)

Note: Separate the authors' names with a comma between them.  For the last author listed, put an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's name. You must include all names for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors, after the 19th author, put three ellipses (...) and then add the final author's name.


Book in Print (group or organization author)

Name of group or organization author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

American Heart Association. (2011). No fad diet: A personal plan for

healthy weight loss (2nd ed.). Clarkson Potter.

 

 

 Paraphrase: (American Heart Association, 2011)

 Quote: (American Heart Association, 2011, p. 19)

Note: If the group or organization is also the publisher of the book, you can omit the publisher's name from the reference.


Chapter in Edited Book 

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (edition if given and is not first edition, pp. first page number-last page number). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

McMasters, P.K. (2008). Video game violence does not contribute to

bullying. In R. Rosenthal (Ed.), Introducing issues with opposing

viewpoints: Bullying (pp.29-33). Greenhaven Press.

 Paraphrase: (McMasters, 2008)

 Quote: (McMasters, 2013, p. 29)

Note: if there is more than one editor, use (Eds.).


  Book with Editor (no author) 

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened). 

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Hawkins, D.F. (Ed.). (2003). Violent crime: Assessing race & ethnic

differences. Cambridge University Press.

 Paraphrase: (Hawkins, 2003)

 Quote: (Hawkins, 2003, p. 43)

Note: if there is more than one editor, use (Eds.) 


Magazines and Newspaper Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

Magazine Article in Print 

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Ketcham, C. (2020, July/August). Wiring the wilderness. Sierra,104(4), 33-

34

 Paraphrase: (Ketcham, 2020)

 Quote: (Ketcham, 2020, p. 33)


Newspaper Article in Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper, SectionPage.

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Messick, B. (2020, July 1). Masks not required in Havasu. Today's News-

Herald, A1.

 Paraphrase: (Messick, 2019)

 Quote: (Messick, 2020, p. A1)


 

Encyclopedias and other Reference Works: See section 10.2 and 10.3 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Encyclopedia  Article Entry (with author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (Volume number, pp. first page of entry-last page of entry). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Crown, J.D., & Porter, A.J. (2002). Philippine islands history. In T. J. Brown

(Ed.), The world book encyclopedia (Vol 19 pp.108-114). World Book.

 Paraphrase: (Crown & Porter, 2002)

 Quote: (Crown & Porter, 2002, p. 110)


Entire Encyclopedia 

Last Name of Author or Editor, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.) or (Eds.). (Year of Publication). Name of encyclopedia. Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Rash, V.H., & Carde', R.T. (Eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of insects. Elsevier.

 Paraphrase: (Rash & Carde', 2009)

 Quote: (Rash & Carde', 2009, p. 32)


 

Contents: Explore these resources if you cannot find the answer to your question on any of our other APA tabs:

Digital Object Identifer (DOI). What is it?

 
Digital Object Identifiers or DOIs, were created to provide electronic or digital materials a unique identifier. DOIs do not change over time, which guarantees findability of any digital material with an assigned DOI. The most common example of materials with an assigned DOI are electronic journal articles. Common citation styles (APA and MLA) require the DOI to be included in the reference page citation if one has been assigned. 
 
What do DOIs "Look Like"?
  • All DOI's start with the number "10" followed by a period. Here is an example: 10.1038/nature12995
Things to Remember:
  • If an article is digitized that does not mean it has been assigned DOI.
  • Both peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed articles may have an assigned DOI.
  • DOIs are clearly labeled "DOI."
  • Refer to the appropriate citation guide on how to format the DOI in the reference list

Where do I find the DOI?

If an article has been assigned a DOI:
  • If from an EBSCOhost database, the DOI will be in the electronic record.
  • If from a Gale database, click on the article, the DOI will be listed below the title in the top right-hand portion of the page. 
  • Additionally, most publishers place the DOI on the first page of an article in either the header or footer.
  • If you cannot locate the DOI in any of these places, the article most likely was never assigned a DOI. But please feel free to contact a librarian for assistance.

I have the DOI, but how do I get the Article?

 

If you have the DOI of an article but do not know how to get access to the article it is connected to:

  • Go to Crossref.org 
  • click the "Search Metadata" tab above the search box.
  • Paste the DOI in the search box and hit "enter."
  • Write down the name of the journal, volume, issue, and year of publication of the article. Do not purchase or rent the article. Instead, contact a librarian to see if the library has access to that journal through one of its databases or can obtain the article through Interlibrary Loan (ILL).