Mohave Community College Libraries

APA Citation Guidelines (7th ed.)

Contents: The information on this page is from the 7th Edition of Concise Guide to APA Style: The Official APA Style Guide for Students. There are slight differences between student and professional papers in APA 7th Edition. Note: Always check with your instructor to see if there are specific style or formatting guidelines they wish you to use.

Why is correct formatting important? First, many careers require you to have good attention to detail such as nursing, computer coding, and welding. Take it as an opportunity to practice this vital skill. Next, incorrect formatting and other errors will lead readers to question your credibility and understanding of the material. Finally, instructors will deduct points from your paper if the formatting is incorrect.

Overall Style & Format

  • Approved fonts: Times New Roman 12, Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucinda Sans 10, and Georgia 11.
    • Check with your instructor for which font and size they want you to use.
    • Use the same font and size throughout your paper.
  • Running heads are not required for student papers.
  • All pages have the page number in the top right header.
  • Double-space the entire paper and use 1" margins.
  • Indent paragraphs 1/2 inch by hitting "Tab" once.
  • Use one space after a period ending a sentence.
  • Use "they" as a singular pronoun when it is used by a person as their preferred pronoun or when the gender of a person is not known.

Title Page 

The title page includes the following elements in the order given:

  • Title of the paper:
    • Summarizes the main idea of the paper (the shorter, the better).
    • Bolded and centered 3-4 lines down from the top margin.
    • The title is in Title Case.
    • If there is a sub-title, separate it from the main title with a double-spaced line.
  • Name of the author:
    • ​Include first name, middle initial and last name. Example: Evan L. Cartwright.
    • Include one double-spaced line between the title and the author's name.
    • For a group project, include all of the authors' names:
      • Names go on the same line with spillover onto additional lines if needed.
      • For two authors, separate the names by the word "and." Example: Evan L. Cartwright and Thomas P. Morgan.
      • If there are three or more authors, separate the names with a comma and include the word "and" before the final name. Example: Evan L. Cartwright, Thomas P. Morgan, Danielle A. Morton, and Kyle L. Winters.
  • Author affiliation (APA recommends both department and institution name)
    • Department of Science, Mohave Community College
  • Course number and name:
    • Use the course code and official name. Example: AST 101: Introduction to Astronomy 
  • Instructor name:
    • ​Use your instructor's name as it appears in the syllabus. 
  • Assignment due date:
    • Put the assignment due date in the month, date, and year format. Example: July 17, 2020.

In-text Citation Basics

 
  • Use the Author-Date format for in-text citations. Example: (Morgan, 2015).
    • In-text citations go at the end of the paraphrased or quoted information, this is known as a "parenthetical citation." Narrative citations are also acceptable (see parenthetical vs. narrative in-text citations)
    • Two authors use first author & second author, year on all in-text citations.
      • Example: (Jenson & Frank, 2019)
    • Three or more authors abbreviate to first author et al. on all in-text citations.
      • Example: (Morgan et al., 2015).
    • Periods go after the in-text citation.
  • Direct quotes require a page number in your in-text citation.
    • Use the abbreviation "p." for a quote that appears on one page.
      • Example: (Morgan, 2015, p. 175).
    • Use the abbreviation "pp." for quotes that span more than one page.
      • Example: (Morgan, 2015, pp. 175-176).
    • If you are quoting from a source that does not have page numbers (online newspaper, website etc...), use paragraph (para.) numbers by counting the paragraphs.
      • Example: (Morgan, 2015, para. 4). 
    • Put short (less than 40 words) quotes in quotations marks. If the quote is 40 words or more use a block quote:
      • ​Start a block quote on a new line.
      • Indent the entire quote 1/2 inch.
      • Cite at the end of the quote.
      • Many instructors do not allow long quotes. They want you to paraphrase the information instead. Check with your instructor before using a block quote or you could lose points.
  • All sources cited in-text must appear in your reference list.
  • Refer to the in-text citation guidelines from the APA website as needed.

Reference List Basics

 
 

Visit the Electronic Citation and Print Citation tabs at the top of this page for specific examples.

  • Start the reference list on a new page and put "References" centered at the top in bold text.
  • Entries are double-spaced (both within and between entries) and in alphabetical order.
  • Use a 1/2 inch hanging indent for references that have more than one line. The first line of the reference will be flush left, but additional lines will be indented 1/2 inch. Use CTRL+Tab in MS Word for hanging indents.
  • Spell out the names of up to 20 authors on the reference page.
  • Use sentence case for the names of articles, books, reports, and websites.
  • Hyperlinks:
    • ​Include the https:// at the beginning of the URL.
    • Links can either be "live" in blue with underline or black without underlining.

The examples below are some of the common citation type for reference list entries and subsequent in-text citations.

Review the sections: Reference List Basics and In-text Citation Basics located in the Style, Format, & Citation Guidelines tab above before completing the reference list. 

 

Journal Articles Newspapers
eBooks                                                    Reports
Magazine Articles                              Social Media/Personal Communications
Movies/Films/Videos         Websites/Webpages/Images                        
Encyclopedias/Dictionaries   

 

 

Journal Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Journal Article with a DOI from a Database (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if

any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

DOI as a hyperlink

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Potter, C.A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play and education of

     children with autism. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental

     Disability, 42(4), 375-384. https:doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2016.1245851

 Paraphrase: (Potter, 2017)

 Quote: (Potter, 2017, p. 378)

 


 Journal Article from a Database with a DOI (two to twenty authors)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second

Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume

Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Amorisco, N.C., Evans, N.W., & Van de Ven, G. (2014). The remnant of a

      merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature, 507(749),

      335-337. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12995

 Paraphrase: (Amorisco et al., 2014)

 Quote: (Amorisco et al., 2014, p. 336)

 

Note: Separate the authors' names with a comma between them.  For the last author listed, put an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's name. You must include all names for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors, after the 19th author, put three ellipses (...) and then add the final author's name.


Journal Article from a Database without a DOI (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if

any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Anarde, S. (2019). Home sweet home: Aging in place in rural America 

      Generations, 43(2), 17-23.

 

 Paraphrased: (Anarde, 2019)

 Quotation: (Anarde, 2019, p. 20)

 

Note:​ APA (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. See Section 9.30 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) 


 

eBooks: See section 10.2 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed) for additional examples. Place of publication, database information or URL is not required for reference page citations.

 

eBooks from a Library Database (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if

given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Glendenning, D.K. (2007). Our place in the universe. Imperial College.

 

 

 Paraphrase: (Glendenning, 2007)

 Quote: (Glendenning, 2007, p. 45)


eBooks from a Library Database (two to twenty authors)

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial.

Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not

first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Scott, S., & Duncan, C.J. (2001). Biology of plagues: Evidence from

      historical populations. Cambridge University Press.

 Paraphrase: (Scott & Duncan, 2001)

 Quote: (Scott & Duncan, 2001, p. 27) 


 

Magazine Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Magazine Article from a Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of article:

Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page

number.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Birrell, A. (2018, August 10). Reduce airborne hazards while welding. 

      Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 52(8), 14-15. 

 Paraphrase: (Birrell, 2018)

 Quote: (Birrell, 2018, p. 14)

 

Note: magazine articles often do not have DOI's. Include the DOI at the end of the reference if one is provided.


Magazine Article from an Online Magazine

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of article:

Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number (Issue Number if given), first page number-last

page number (if given). URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Seabrook, J. (2020, June 22). The promise and the peril of virtual

      healthcare. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/

      2020/06/29/the-promise-and-the-peril-of-virtual-health-care

 

 

 Paraphrase: (Seabrook, 2020)

 Quote: (Seabrook, 2020, p. 23)

 

 

 

Note: Omit any information that is missing (volume, issue, or page number range), which is often the case for magazine articles from online.


 

Movies/Films/Videos: See section 10.10 of Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

YouTube, Vimeo, etc... Video

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted

the video]. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Martin, T.M. [MartinT]. (2019, August 22). Martin's 85 rules of grammar

      mastery [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/n1_sr89jEFTD

 

 Paraphrase:  (Martin, 2019)

 Quote: (Martin, 2019, 10:18 )

 

Note: For citation purposes the person or organization who uploaded the video is considered the author. If you do not have the author's  full name, begin the citation with their user name without the brackets.

Provide a time stamp if you need to cite a quotation of the clip.


TED Talk (from TED website)

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of speaker if known. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of

video [Video]. Name of Website (TED Conferences). url

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Smoot, G. (2008, May 12). The design of the universe [Video]. Ted

      Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/george_smoot_the_design_

      of_the_universe

   

 Paraphrase: (Smoot, 2008)

 Quote: (Smoot, 2008, 08:15)

 

 

 

Note: Use the name of the speaker as the author if the TED Talk comes directly from TED's website.

If the TED Talk is posted on YouTube, put the owner of the YouTube account as the author (TED) and then cite the talk as a YouTube video (see example).


Movie or Film (DVD, Streaming Service, Theater)

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title

of movie [Film]. Production Company.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Reiner, C. (Director). (1985). Summer rental. [Film] Paramount Pictures

      Corp.

 

 Paraphrase: (Reiner, 1985)

 Quote: (Reiner, 1985: 21:35)

 

Note: If the director is unknown, use someone who is in a similar role (producer, writer) in place of the director. Provide a time stamp if you need to cite a quotation.

It is not required to include to the format of a movie, but at times it is helpful. Put the format or special edition in the square brackets after "Film" with a semi-colon followed by description [Film; directors cut DVD]


Films on Demand (library database)

Production Company/Producer that created content or film Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. if

known (Director). (Year film/video was created, Month Day if known). Title of work [Video file]. Name of

library database.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

 BBC World Wide Learning. (2009). The truth about violence [Video file]. 

      Films on Demand.

 

 Paraphrase: (BBC World Wide Learning, 2009)

 Quote: (BBC World Wide Learning, 2008, 18:35)

Note: The Films on Demand database contains  full length videos, clips, and TV episodes. You should begin your citation with the production company/producer that uploaded the video unless the director of the the film is "well known."


 

Encyclopedias/Dictionaries: See sections 10.2 and 10.3 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

Note: A statement of retrieval date must be provided for URLs if the website is dynamic or changing.  If available, link to a stable archived version of the URL (no retrieval date is necessary in this case).

Online Encyclopedia Entry from a Website (with author)

Author, A. A. (Date). Entry/Article title. In Name of encyclopedia (edition if given and its not the

first)Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL  

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Hanson, P.R. (n.d). Walnut trees. In American encyclopedia. Retrieved 

       October 15, 2021, from https://www.american.com/trees

 

 Paraphrase: (Hanson, n.d.)

 Quote: (Hanson, n.d, para. 5)

 

Note: When an online encyclopedia, dictionary or thesaurus are regularly updated use "n.d." for the date and include the retrieval date with the URL.


Online Encyclopedia Entry from a Website (with author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication).Title of entry. In Editor's First

Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and

is not first edition). Retrieved date from url 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Hancock, J.R. (2019). Picasso. In J. W. Graham (Ed.), The Thompson          

        encyclopedia of art (Fall 2019 ed.). Thompson University.   

        https://www.picasso.thompson.edu/history       

 Paraphrase: (Hancock, 2019)

 Quote: (Hancock, 2019, para. 5)

 

Newspapers: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Newspaper Article from a Database

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Newspaper.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Rossman, J (2018, September 9). Are you ready for 5G? The moto Z3

      will be. Dallas Morning News.

 Paraphrase: (Rossman, 2018)

 Quote: (Rossman, 2018, para. 4)

 


Newspaper Article from an Online Newspaper

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of

article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Wehner, M. (2020, June 22). This startup will send you to space in a

      balloon for $125,000. New York Posthttps://nypost.com/2020/06/22/

      this-startup-will-send-you-to-space-in-a-balloon-for-125000/

 Paraphrase: (Wehner, 2020)

 Quote: (Wehner, 2020, para. 3)

 


Newspaper Article/Webpage from a News Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of

article: Subtitle if any. Name of News Website. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

La Monica, P.R. (2020, June 22). Virgin Galactic will help train astronauts for

       NASA. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/22/business/virgin-galactic-

      astronauts-nasa/index.html

 Paraphrase: (La Monica, 2020)

 Quote: (La Monica, 2020, para. 5)

 

Note: Use this to format articles published in online news sources (CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, Huff Post etc...).


Reports: Including government, technical, and research reports from agencies and organizations. See section 10.4 of Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Report by a Government Agency or other Organization (group author)

Name of Government Department or agency or Name of Organization. (Year of Publication). Title of

document: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (see note). URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Defense Intelligence Agency. (2019). Challenges to space security

      https://www.dia.mil/Portals/27/Documents/News/Military%20Power

      %20Publications/Space_Threat_V14_020119_sm.pdf

 Paraphrase: (Defense Intelligence Agency, 2019)

 Quote: (Defense Intelligence Agency, 2019, p. 16)

Note: Group authors include government agencies, departments, non-profit organizations, tasks forces, and more. According to the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.): "The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher" (Section 9.11).


Report by a Government Agency or other Organization (individual author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.

Name of Agency or Organization. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Hammes, T. X. (2020). An affordable defense of Asia. Atlantic Council. 

      https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/An-

      Affordable-Defense-of-Asia-Report.pdf

 Paraphrase: (Hammes, 2020)

 Quote: (Hammes, 2020, p. 18)

 


 

Social Media/Personal Communications:  See sections 8.9,10.1, and 10.13 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First initial. Second Initial. or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was

published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Pohjoismaki, J. (2020, June 10). What do dog breeds tell about the

      makings of our best friends -- and us? On Biology. https://blogs.

      biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2020/06/10/what-do-the-dog-

      breeds-tell-about-the-makings-of-our-best-friends-and-us/

 Paraphrase:  (Pohjoismaki, 2020)

 Quote:  (Pohjoismaki, 2020, para. 3) 

 

 


Online Forum or Message Board Post

Poster's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. or Name of Organization that posted message [username if

known]. (Year message was posted, Month Day). Title of forum post [Online forum post]. Name of

Forum. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September

      12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting  

      to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post].

      Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/

      im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/

 Paraphrase: (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018)

 Quote: (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018, para. 2)

 

 

Note: Many online communities have forums and message boards. Examples include Reddit, Quora, Flickr, and many more. 


Personal Communications

(First Initial of communicator. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year

interview took place or e-mail was received)

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

There is no reference list entry for information cited as a personal

      communication because readers cannot retrieve the information.

 

 Paraphrase/Quote: 

(C.D. Willard, personal communication, May 27, 2019)

 

Note: Personal communications consist of emails, text messages, online chats/direct messages, personal interviews, telephone call/interviews, and more that are not published. See section 8.9 of the Concise Guide to APA (7th ed.) for a complete list.


 

Websites/Webpages/Images: .See section 10.14 of Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples. Dates are often provided at the bottom of webpages, if there is no date provide for a webpage, put (n.d.) where the date goes in the citation.

 

Webpage on a Website (individual author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month

Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). Website name. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2017, January 17). How to break the busy cycle. Mayo

      Clinichttps://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-

      depth/how-to-break-the-busy-cycle/art-20269953

 Paraphrase: (Martin Lillie, 2017)

 Quote: (Martin Lillie, 2017, para. 5)

 


Webpage on a Website (group or organization author)

Group/Organization's Name. (Year webpage was updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of

page: Subtitle (if any). URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, June 25). Your 

      health:Y Older adultshttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/

      need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

 Paraphrase: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)

 Quote: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, para. 3)

 


Images

Artist or Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork or image [Format]. Name of

Website or Location. URL

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Rod, E. (2019). Mouse kidney section [Online image]. Wikimedia

Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mouse_Kidney_Section.jpg

 Paraphrase: (Rod, 2019)

 Quote: (N/A)

 

Note: Images and other visual works should be cited as any other type of work. If you provide an image of the text in your paper, it is generally accompanied by a caption. Check with your instructor to see if this is necessary.

The examples below are some of the common citation type for reference list entries and subsequent in-text citations.

Review the sections: Reference List Basics and In-text Citation Basics located in the Style, Format, & Citation Guidelines tab above before completing the reference list. 

Journal Articles
Books                                              
Magazine and Newspaper Articles                      
Encyclopedias and other Reference Works

Journal Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Journal Article in Print (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. 

Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Melrose, S. (2019). Late life depression: Nursing actions that can

help. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 55(3), 453-458.

 Paraphrase: (Melrose, 2019)

 Quote: (Melrose, 2019, p. 455)


 Journal Article in Print (two to twenty authors)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second

Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume

Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number of article.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Verma, M., Saini, A.K., & Nawal, R.R. (2011). Role of ethics in dental

marketing. Journal of Management Research, 11(3), 159-167.

 Paraphrase: (Verma et al., 2011)

 Quote: (Verma et al., 2011, p. 163)

Note: Separate the authors' names with a comma between them.  For the last author listed, put an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's name. You must include all names for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors, after the 19th author, put three ellipses (...) and then add the final author's name.


Books: See section 10.2 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed) for additional examples. Place of publication is not required in reference page citations.

 

Book in Print (one author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if 

given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Katznelson, I. (2013). Fear itself: The New Deal and the origins of our

time. Liverlight Publishing.

 Paraphrase: (Katznelson, 2013)

 Quote: (Katzneslon, 2013, p. 29)


Book in Print (two to twenty authors)

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial.

Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not

first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened). 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Cassell, K.A., & Hiremath, U. (2013). Reference and information services:

An introduction (3rd ed.). Neal-Schuman.

 Paraphrase: (Cassell & Hiremath, 2013)

 Quote: (Cassell & Hiremath, 2013, p. 22)

Note: Separate the authors' names with a comma between them.  For the last author listed, put an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's name. You must include all names for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors, after the 19th author, put three ellipses (...) and then add the final author's name.


Book in Print (group or organization author)

Name of group or organization author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and

is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

American Heart Association. (2011). No fad diet: A personal plan for

healthy weight loss (2nd ed.). Clarkson Potter.

 

 

 Paraphrase: (American Heart Association, 2011)

 Quote: (American Heart Association, 2011, p. 19)

Note: If the group or organization is also the publisher of the book, you can omit the publisher's name from the reference.


Chapter in Edited Book 

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or

short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (edition

if given and is not first edition, pp. first page number-last page number). Publisher Name (can be

shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

McMasters, P.K. (2008). Video game violence does not contribute to

bullying. In R. Rosenthal (Ed.), Introducing issues with opposing

viewpoints: Bullying (pp.29-33). Greenhaven Press.

 Paraphrase: (McMasters, 2008)

 Quote: (McMasters, 2013, p. 29)

Note: if there is more than one editor, use (Eds.).


  Book with Editor (no author) 

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book:

           Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name (can be shortened). 

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Hawkins, D.F. (Ed.). (2003). Violent crime: Assessing race & ethnic

differences. Cambridge University Press.

 Paraphrase: (Hawkins, 2003)

 Quote: (Hawkins, 2003, p. 43)

Note: if there is more than one editor, use (Eds.) 


Magazines and Newspaper Articles: See section 10.1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

Magazine Article in Print 

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of

article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page

number.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Ketcham, C. (2020, July/August). Wiring the wilderness. Sierra,104(4), 33-

34

 Paraphrase: (Ketcham, 2020)

 Quote: (Ketcham, 2020, p. 33)


Newspaper Article in Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of

article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper, SectionPage.

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Messick, B. (2020, July 1). Masks not required in Havasu. Today's News-

Herald, A1.

 Paraphrase: (Messick, 2019)

 Quote: (Messick, 2020, p. A1)


 

Encyclopedias and other Reference Works: See section 10.2 and 10.3 of the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) for additional examples.

 

Encyclopedia  Article Entry (with author)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First

Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (Volume number, pp.

first page of entry-last page of entry). Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Crown, J.D., & Porter, A.J. (2002). Philippine islands history. In T. J. Brown

(Ed.), The world book encyclopedia (Vol 19 pp.108-114). World Book.

 Paraphrase: (Crown & Porter, 2002)

 Quote: (Crown & Porter, 2002, p. 110)


Entire Encyclopedia 

Last Name of Author or Editor, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.) or (Eds.). (Year of Publication). Name

of encyclopedia. Publisher Name (can be shortened).

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-text Citations

Rash, V.H., & Carde', R.T. (Eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of insects. Elsevier.

 Paraphrase: (Rash & Carde', 2009)

 Quote: (Rash & Carde', 2009, p. 32)


 

Contents: Still need help on APA? Explore these additional resources.

Use these handouts from APA if you need further assistance with formatting and citation guidelines. Note: Some instructors may require different guidelines than what is official from APA. In these cases, you should abide by their directions.

 

What is the difference between parenthetical in-text citations and narrative in-text citations?

Both parenthetical and narrative citation are correct. You may stick to one style or mix and match between the two.

  • In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses
  • In narrative citations, the author name is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence (known as a signal phrase) and the year follows in parentheses.

See Parenthetical Versus Narrative In-Text Citations for more information and examples.

What if there is a missing author, date, or other piece of information from my citation?

Sometimes a piece of information you need for citation is either missing or unknown, in which case you will have to modify the reference.

For example, if a source was missing the author, in a parenthetical citation, include an abbreviated version of the source’s title in quotation marks, followed by the date and the page number.

  • ("Studies determined," 2020)

If using a narrative in-text citation, list the title of the source in the introductory phrase to the paraphrased or quoted material, followed by the date in parentheses.

  • In the book Pluto is Still a Planet (2019)...

See Missing Reference Information for more information on how to modify both in text citations and reference list entries. 

I'm using a website as one of my sources, how do I find the author?

Identifying the author of a website can be difficult at times (remember, an author can be an individual, corporation, or group). If the author is not easily identifiable, check the following:

  • Scroll to the bottom of the website to see if the author is listed.
  • Find and read the "About" section of the website.

If you cannot find the author, you can start the citation with the title of the website. If this is the case use the title for both the in-text citation and reference list.

I'm using a website as one of my sources, how do I find the date for the citation?

Websites often have two dates associated with them: 

  • Copyright date (original publication)
  • Date the site was last updated. 

If the date the site was last updated is available, use that for the citation instead of the copyright date. It is not unusual for this information to be missing or hard to find on websites. Check the bottom of the website or the "About" section.

What if my source has no page numbers? 

If your source does not have page numbers, use another identifier in its place. Examples of other identifiers are heading titles, section titles, paragraph numbers, and time stamps. Sources that often lack page numbers are:

  • Websites and webpages
  • Online magazines and newspapers
  • Audiovisual works (films, YouTube videos, TED talks)
  • eBooks

See Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers for more information and examples.

How do I cite two or more works by the same author with the same year of publication? 

In this case, assign a lower case letter (a,b,c) after the year of publication to distinguish between the two works. Use these lower case letters in both the in-text citation and reference list.

See Citing Works With the Same Author and Date for more information and examples.

 Can I cite more than one source in an in-text citation?

Yes, you can. If you would like to cite multiple works in a parenthetical in-text citation, write the citation as normal and separate each with a semi-colon. Sources should be listed alphabetically (as in the reference list).

  • (Sampson & Jones, 2018; Johnson, 2020)

See Citing Multiple Works for more information and examples.

How do I cite a source within a source? In other words, how do I cite something that's citing something else? 

Authors of books, textbooks, articles, or websites may at times mention another person's work by using a quote or paraphrased information from that source. The primary source is the work that is mentioned in the article you are reading. The secondary source is the article you are reading.

If possible, you should locate the primary source and cite it directly (as normal) both in-text and in the reference list.

If you are unable to find the primary source then APA Style page states the following: 

  • In the reference list, provide an entry for the secondary source that you used.
  • In the text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used.

For example, if you read a work by Lyon et al. (2014) in which Rabbitt (1982) was cited, and you were unable to read Rabbitt’s work yourself, cite Rabbitt’s work as the original source, followed by Lyon et al.’s work as the secondary source. Only Lyon et al.’s work appears in the reference list.

(Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)

See Secondary Sources for more information and examples.

Can't I just use the Cite Tool in EBSCO or Gale Databases to copy and paste my reference(s) instead of learning APA Citation?

Although the citations created with the citation generator tools can be good starting points, they can have mistakes on capitalization, punctuation, and italicization. Double-check any citation you use with an example from the library website.

Disclaimer from EBSO citation tools:

Review the instructions at EBSCO Connect and make any necessary corrections before using. Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Always consult your library resources for the exact formatting and punctuation guidelines.

Disclaimer from GALE citation tools:

Data elements have been formatted to meet the latest citation standards. These citations are not a replacement for the latest guidebooks or your instructor's requirements. Double-check capitalization, dates, and names and make any necessary corrections.

Digital Object Identifer (DOI). What is it?

 
Digital Object Identifiers or DOIs, were created to provide electronic or digital materials a unique identifier. DOIs do not change over time, which guarantees findability of any digital material with an assigned DOI. The most common example of materials with an assigned DOI are electronic journal articles. Common citation styles (APA and MLA) require the DOI to be included in the reference page citation if one has been assigned. 
 
What do DOIs "Look Like"?
  • All DOI's start with the number "10" followed by a period. Here is an example: 10.1038/nature12995
Things to Remember:
  • If an article is digitized that does not mean it has been assigned DOI.
  • Both peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed articles may have an assigned DOI.
  • DOIs are clearly labeled "DOI."
  • Refer to the appropriate citation guide on how to format the DOI in the reference list

Where do I find the DOI?

If an article has been assigned a DOI:
  • If from an EBSCOhost database, the DOI will be in the electronic record.
  • If from a Gale database, click on the article, the DOI will be listed below the title in the top right-hand portion of the page. 
  • Additionally, most publishers place the DOI on the first page of an article in either the header or footer.
  • If you cannot locate the DOI in any of these places, the article most likely was never assigned a DOI. But please feel free to contact a librarian for assistance.

I have the DOI, but how do I get the Article?

 

If you have the DOI of an article but do not know how to get access to the article it is connected to:

  • Go to Crossref.org 
  • click the "Search Metadata" tab above the search box.
  • Paste the DOI in the search box and hit "enter."
  • Write down the name of the journal, volume, issue, and year of publication of the article. Do not purchase or rent the article. Instead, contact a librarian to see if the library has access to that journal through one of its databases or can obtain the article through Interlibrary Loan (ILL).