Mohave Community College Libraries



Below are some common terms associated with copyright and fair use.

Audiovisual: A series of related images together with accompanying sounds, intended to be shown by the use of machines or devices such as projectors, viewers, or electronic equipment.

Circumvention: The act of bypassing a technological device or system (passwords, encryption, watermarking) to gain access to or copy a work. 

Commercial Use: For the purposes of this glossary, Commercial Use refers to any activity that is meant to generate income. If an item is marked for non-commercial use, this means that you cannot use it if you intend your work to bring in revenue.

Compilation (Anthology): A work made up of pre-existing materials selected and arranged in a creative and original way, so that the resulting work qualifies for copyright protection. 

Copies: Material objects from which a work can be read or visually perceived. 

Copyright: A set of exclusive rights awarded to a copyright holder for an original and creative work of authorship, fixed in a tangible form of expression. 

Copyright Owner: With respect to any one of the exclusive rights comprised in a copyright, refers to the owner of that particular right. Rights granted by copyright may be sold or licensed individually, on an exclusive or nonexclusive basis permanently, or for a limited period of time.

Created: A work is "created" when it is fixed in a tangible form for the first time.

Creative Commons: A nonprofit organization that enables the sharing and use of creativity and knowledge through free legal tools. (

Derivative Work: A copyrightable work based on a pre-existing work, such as a translation, or dramatization of a work.

Digital Educational Work: A work that is marketed primarily for online classes.

Display: To "display" a work means to show a copy of it, either directly or by means of a film, slide, television image, or any other device or process of, or in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show individual images non-sequentially. (US Code)

Dramatic Literary Work: Any work in which the story is portrayed by actors; includes plays, movies, operas, television dramas and comedies. 

Dramatic Musical Work: Includes musical works incorporated into opera, musicals or music videos.

Exclusive Rights: The rights of the copyright holder to reproduce, distribute, publicly perform, and display a work and to create derivative works based on the original. 

Face-to-Face Teaching Exemption: Exempts all displays and performances when:

  • given by instructor or pupil
  • in a face-to-face teaching situation
  • at a non-profit educational institution
  • in a place devoted to teaching
  • the audiovisual works are lawfully made

Fair Use: A concept copyright law that allows a user to exercise an exclusive right in certain circumstances without the prior authorization of the copyright holder. “Circumstances” include criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, research or parody.

Fair Use Factors: Four factors must always be considered in determining fair use (see the Fair Use Guidelines page for a complete explanation):

  • the purpose and character of use.
  • the nature of the work.
  • the amount and substantiality of the portion used.
  •  the effect of the use upon the potential market [value] for the copyrighted work.

Fixed: A work is "fixed" in a tangible medium of expression when its embodiment in a copy or phonorecord, by or under the authority of the author, is sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated for a period of more than transitory duration. (US Code)

Fixed in Tangible Medium: The perceptible, physical form of a creative expression, such as words in a book or music on a compact disc. Also one of the requirements for copyright protection. 

Infringement: The act of violating one or more of a copyright holder’s exclusive rights.

Literary Works: Works other than audiovisual works, expressed in words, numbers, or other verbal or numerical symbols, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as books, periodicals, manuscripts, phonorecords, film, tapes, disks, or cards in which they are embodied. (US Code)

Mediated Instructional Activities: Teaching activities that can be exempt from copyright under the TEACH Act, if they are integral to the course, under the direction of the course instructor, and analogous to the kinds of performances or displays one would expect in a physical classroom. 

Motion Pictures: Works consisting of a series of related images which, when shown in succession, impart an impression of motion, together with accompanying sounds, if any. (US Code)

Musical Works: Works which include any accompanying words and are fixed in some tangible medium of expression. Musical works include both original compositions and original arrangements.

Non-Dramatic Literary Works: Literary works without a dramatic presentation, such as poetry, novels, and factual works.

Non-Dramatic Musical Works: Refers to musical works, such as popular songs that are not incorporated and performed in an opera, musical, or music video. 

Perform: To "perform" a work means to recite, render, play, dance, or act it, either directly or by means of any device or process or, in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show its images in any sequence or to make the sounds accompanying it audible. (US Code)

Phonorecords: Tangible objects from which sounds are fixed and can be heard, communicated, or distributed either directly or through the use of a machine.

Public Display: A display of a work before a group larger than a family or a small group of friends or at a place open to the public. 

Public Domain: Works free to use and unprotected by copyright.

Public Performance: Performance before a group larger than a family or small group of friends, or in a place open to the public. (US Code)

Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act of 2002: An amendment to copyright law that allows for the public performance and display of copyrighted work in digital forms, and to be transferred through digital networks for teaching purposes at accredited non-profit, educational institutions.

Technological Protection Measures: Digital technologies or software used to control access to or copying of copyrighted works, such as password protection and watermarking.

Transfer of Copyright Ownership: An assignment, exclusive license or any other conveyance, of a copyright or of any of the exclusive rights included in a copyright.

Transmit: To transmit a performance or display is to communicate it by any device or process, whereby images or sounds are received beyond the place from which they are sent.

Work for Hire: A copyrightable work created by an employee or a contractor hired to do so.