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APA Citation Guidelines

The following is an example of an APA formatted paper. It is suggested that you format your paper before you begin writing. In addition to this example, there is an APA template available on the Templates and Guides tab that will help you get started.

The following are basic style guidelines for formatting reference page entries and in-text citations for APA style citations. If you would like to see a video presentation of these guidelines, please see APA Videos tab.

**For specific examples, please refer to the Electronic Citation Examples and Print Citation Examples tabs**

Reference Page Basics

1. The reference page is double-spaced and is the same font size and style as the rest of your paper. The running head and page number are included on  the reference page.

2. Begin the references on a new page separate from the text of the paper. Title this page "References" and center it at the top of the page. Do not bold, italicize, underline, put in quotation marks, or enlarge the title.

  • Entries are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each source.
  • Only the initials of the author(s) first and middle name are used in references.
  • In titles and subtitles of articles, chapters, and books, only the first letter of the first word is capitalized and the first letter of any words that are proper nouns

3. Book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers are italicized; Do not italicize issue numbers or the titles of the articles themselves

4The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin of the paper; if the entry exceeds one line then ensuing lines should have a "hanging indent" of 1/2 from the left margin.

(see pages 180-192 of the APA manual 6th edition)

 

In-Text Citation Basics

1. Reference cited in the text of a paper must have a corresponding entry in the reference list (and vice-versa). The only exceptions are personal communications and classical works. The last name of the author(s) of the source and the year of publication must always appear in in-text citations. In-text citations are required for paraphrased information and direct quotations.

Paraphrased Information is when you rewrite something someone else has said or spoken and put it into your own words.

  • The last name of the author(s) of the source and the year of publication are all that is required when paraphrasing information i.e. (Gates, 2005).

Direct Quotations are when you are take something word for word that someone else has said or spoken and put it into your paper.

  • If providing a direct quotation, the page number must also appear i.e. (Gates, 2005, p. 35).

2. Placement of in-text citations can vary within the body of an APA style paper as long as information is cited.

  • The in-text citation in its entirety can be placed in parenthesis at the end of a quotation or paraphrased information. When cited this way, it is known as a "parenthetical in-text citation" (this is the style shown on the example tabs).

Example: Researchers in Brazil found that coffee... (Gates, 2005).

  • The name of the author can be stated in the text of the paper with the year of publication and/or page number. When cited this way, it is known as a "narrative in-text citation."

Example: In his study of coffee production in Brazil, Gates found that production was...(2005).

Example: Gates (2005) found that Brazilian coffee production was lower...

Example: In 2005 Gates found that Brazilian coffee production was lower...

Example: In 2005 Gates found in his study of Brazilian coffee production that "profits were lower than previous decades, despite increased demand" (p. 22).

Please refer to the examples below when formatting reference page entries and in-text citations for electronic sources. Remember to review the Citation Guidelines tab.

**If you are viewing this page on a mobile device scroll right on the table to view the entire citation example**

Article from a Database with DOI

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Potter, C. A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play, and  education of   children with autism. Journal of Intellectual &  Developmental Disability42(4), 375-384. doi:10.3109/13668250.2016.1245851

 Paraphrased: (Potter, 2017)

 Quotation: (Potter, 2017, p. 377)

 

Note: Not all articles have a DOI. See the "What is DOI" tab for information on where to locate an article's DOI.

Article from a Database without DOI

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Potter, C. A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play, and education of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 42(4), 375-384. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/
cjid20/current

 Paraphrased: (Potter, 2017)

 Quotation: (Potter, 2017, p. 381)

 

 

Note: APA 6th ed. states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time and may not be retrievable from that database down the road (p. 192). Instead of the database URL, you should put the URL of the journal homepage the article is located in.

You can find the journal homepage URL in the database record (along with all other information used for citations) or you can type the name of the journal in Google to find the journal homepage. If there is a DOI provided always use it in place of a URL.

Article with Two Authors

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Hamlin, D.A., & Potter, C.D. (2015). Angry dads create angry lads. Journal of Fatherhood,11(3), 222-238. Retrieved from https://www.tcjournal.com

 

 

 Paraphrased:

(Hamlin & Potter,  2015)

 Quotation:

(Hamlin & Potter,   2015, p. 228)

 

Article with 3-5 Authors

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Follow the same format as if you were citing an article with two authors. Do not forget the (&) before the last author. All other formatting guidelines remain the same.

 

 

 

 

 

 Paraphrased: 

(Knox, Collins, & Wilmer, 2015)

Subsequent Citations:

(Knox, et al., 2015)

Quotation: 

(Knox, Collins, & Wilmer, 2015, p. 25)

Subsequent Citations:

(Knox, et al., 2015, p. 27)

eBook from Library Database

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Glendenning, D. K. (2007). Our place in the universe. Retrieved from EBSCO eBooks (EBSCOhost) database

 

 Paraphrased: (Glendenning, 2007)

 Quotation: (Glendenning, 2007, p. 44)

 

Online Magazine Article

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Georgiou, A. (2019, June 03). These stone tools made 2.6 million years are the oldest of their kind. Newsweek, 122(6). Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com/ 

 Paraphrased: (Georgiou, 2019)

 Quotation: (Georgiou, 2019, para. 5)

 

Note: According to APA 6th edition, you should provide the URL of the magazine homepage when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs (201).

Since online newspaper and magazines articles typically do not include page numbers you can cite the paragraph (para.) number to reference direct quotes for in-text citations.

Online Newspaper Article

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Hays, J.D. (2016, May 15). Why I want to be abducted by aliens. The Daily Bugle. Retrieved from http://www.dailybugle.com/

 

 Paraphrased: (Hays, 2016)

 Quotation: (Hays, 2016, para. 4)

 

Note: Since online newspaper and magazines articles typically do not include page numbers you can cite the paragraph (para.) number to reference direct quotes for in-text citations.

Article from a Website with Author

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Wu, B. (2017, March 15). Kawasaki disease: What you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/164533.php

 

 Paraphrased: (Wu, 2017)

 Quotation: (Wu, 2017, para. 3) 

 

Note: If you are citing the entire website instead of an article or page on that site, it is not necessary to include an entry in the reference pages. All that is required is to include the title and address of the webpage within the text of your paper.

Example: The Medical News Today website includes many tips and tricks for senior citizens on how to stay healthy (https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/).

Dates are often located at the bottom of webpages. It may be stated as last updatedlast modified, or last reviewed. If there is no date listed, use (n.d) for "no date."

Article from a Website without Author

 Reference Page Citation                       

In-Text Citations

Welding as an art: A subtle look at this wonderful sport. (2018). Retrieved from http;//www.weldingsports.com/art/article

 

 Paraphrased: ("Welding," 2018)

 Quotation: ("Welding," 2018, para. 4)

 

Note: Since there is no author, use a shortened version of the title for the in-text citation. 

Online Video

 Reference Page Citation                       

In-Text Citations

Berry, R.J. (2017, February). A practical way to help the homeless find work and safety [video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talk/ richard_
j_berry_a_practical_way_to_help_the_homeless_
find_work_and_safety

 

 Paraphrased: (Berry, 2017)

 Quotation: (Berry, 2017, 8:45)

 

 

Note: If there is a username (in addition to an author name), include that in brackets after the author name exactly how it appears. i.e. [MisterHill]. If there is no author and only a username, begin your citation with the username without the brackets. YouTube videos will often only have a username.

If you are quoting from a video, cite the time frame i.e. 8:45 for your in-text citation.

Blog Post

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Price. E. W. (2017 October 9). They got me while driving [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://www.theufo.com/community/forum/abductions/
they-got-me-while-driving
/

 Paraphrased: (Price, 2017)

 Quotation: (Price, 2017, para. 2)

 

Note: If it is the original blog post use [Web log post].  If it is a reply or comment made to the original post, use [Web log comment].

Personal Communication

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Personal communications include personal interviews, emails, letters,  messages and non-archived discussion groups. These are not included in the reference list because the data is non-recoverable.

 

 

 Paraphrased:  (H.L. Hayes, personal communication, May 4, 2018)

 Quotation: Same as paraphrased

 

 

Please refer to the examples below when formatting reference page entries and in-text citations for print sources. Remember to review the Citation Guidelines tab.

**If you are viewing this page on a mobile device scroll right on the table to view the entire citation example**

Article from a Print Journal

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Potter, C. A. (2017). Father involvement in the care, play, and education of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability42(4), 375-384.

 Paraphrased: (Potter, 2017)

 Quotation: (Potter, 2017, p. 384)

Book with One Author

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Taaffe, S. R. (1998). MacArthur’s jungle war: The 1944 New Guinea campaign. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

 Paraphrased: (Taafe, 2008)

 Quotation: (Taafe, 2008, p. 108)

Book with Two Authors

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Snow, D. A., & Anderson, L. (1993). Down on their luck: A study of homeless street peopleBerkley, CA: University of California Press

 

 

 Paraphrased: 

(Snow & Anderson, 1993)

 Quotation: 

(Snow & Anderson, 1993, p. 105)

Book with an Editor (but no Author)

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Hawkins, D. F. (Ed.). (2003). Violent crime: Assessing race & ethnic differencesCambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 Paraphrased: (Hawkins, 2003)

 Quotation: (Hawkins, 2003, p. 222)

Book with Two Editors (but no Authors)

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

Webster, D. W., & Vernick, J. S. (Eds.). (2013). Reducing gun violence in America: Informing policy with evidence and analysis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

 

 Paraphrased: 

(Webster & Vernick, 2013)

 Quotation: 

(Webster & Vernick, 2013, p. 118)

Chapters, Short Stories, Essays, or Articles from a Book

(Anthology or Collection) each with Different Authors

 Reference Page Citation                       

 In-Text Citations

McMasters, P.K. (2008). Video game violence does not contribute to bullying. In R. Rosenthal (Ed.), Introducing issues with opposing viewpoints: Bullying (pp. 29-33). Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.

 Paraphrased: (McMasters, 2008))

 Quotation: (McMasters, 2008, p. 31)

Note: Anthologies are collections of short stories, poems, plays or other literary works. If there is no editor (Ed.) you may leave that part out.

Please view the videos below for assistance with APA Format, APA In-text Citations, and APA References.

APA Formatting Guidelines

APA style papers follow specific formatting guidelines such as page setup, title page, running headers, and more.

Permission to use APA Format in Word in 4 Minutes granted by author Colin Murphy, Ed. D

APA In-Text Citations in the Body of Your Paper

APA citations follow specific conventions that distinguish them from other styles.This video will show you what in-text citations should look like and explain why you must use them.

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APA Reference Page Citations

APA reference page citations follow a specific guidelines. This video will show you the basic format to use when creating a reference page.

What is a DOI, a digital object identifier?

A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. Because the DOI insures findability for the object, citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian, etc.) are starting to request the use of a DOI in a citation for e-journal content.

All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher.

Below are some methods that can be used to obtain DOIs:

  • If a journal publisher uses DOIs, they will usually print the DOI somewhere on the first page of the article.
  • Some of the online resources used to search for articles on topics will supply DOIs in the citations. View the full citation to see if a DOI is included.

How do I cite an article with a DOI?

A DOI number does not affect the in-text citation of an article, but it does change the reference entry slightly. An article with a DOI number would use the following reference -

How to cite a journal article with a digital object identifier (DOI)

Original source of example (catalogue/database record):

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