Every cited source from your essay should appear in your References page, which comes at the end of the essay.
The References page must conform to the following rules:
In this video on APA format, you’ll see a sample references list with some tips on creating a references list of your own.
Body of Paper
APA In-Text Citations
See below examples of how to handle APA citations in the body of your text.
A direct quote is a word for word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote.
Author before Quotation
Author after Quotation
The block quote is used for direct quotations that are longer than 40 words. The block format is a freestanding quote that does not include quotation marks. Introduce the block quote on a new line. Indent the entire quote ½ inch or 5-7 spaces. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Also include the author's last name, date of publication, and page numbers (if available).
Author at the Beginning
Author at End
A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult to understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.
The APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication. Page numbers are encouraged but optional.
Author at Beginning, No Page Number
Author at Beginning, With Page Number
Author at End, No Page Number
Author at End, With Page Number
Authors in Text
See examples below to learn about how multiple authors for one work are handled in APA parenthetical citations.
Include the first few words from the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year if no author is given. Article, chapter and web page titles go in quotation marks. Italicize periodical, book and report titles.
First citation in text:
About the Sample APA In-Text Citations
Based off the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010. Creators are Jen Klaudinyi, Robert Monge. URL is https://www.wou.edu/provost/library/clip/apa/. CLIP tutorial is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA.
What is a DOI, a digital object identifier?
A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. Because the DOI insures findability for the object, citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian, etc.) are starting to request the use of a DOI in a citation for e-journal content.
All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher.
Below are some methods that can be used to obtain DOIs:
How do I cite an article with a DOI?
A DOI number does not affect the in-text citation of an article, but it does change the reference entry slightly. An article with a DOI number would use the following reference -
How to cite a journal article with a digital object identifier (DOI)
Original source of example (catalogue/database record):