English 101 (Roth)

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English 101 (Roth)


What are the characteristics of a scholarly publication in the digital age?

Web publishing has complicated the identification of scholarly communications. Traditional cues such as publisher, press, and durability are no longer constant in the world of digital, scholarly communications. Findings from Leah Halliday’s work with scholars, librarians, and researchers has identified three characteristics to look for in a publication:

Trustworthiness

  • Scholarly Publications, such as articles and books, should not be changed after digital distribution.  
  • Different versions should be clearly identified so as to alert the community to changes.
  • To satisfy all potential interest, trustworthiness should be based on 'institutionalised' measures such as peer review and this process should be evident to the community.
  • Each publication should have at least one identifiable author.

Publicity

  • The potential audience must be made aware that the publication exists. Libraries are great partners for publicity.
  • The publication should have metadata containing a minimum set of information, preferably including information about all versions. Metadata will enable others to find it.

Accessibility

  • The author must intend that the publication be made publicly available in a durable form over the long term.
  • The publication must be durably recorded on some medium.
  • The publication must be reliably accessible and retrievable over time. Supporting institutions have a responsibility to support long-term accessibility.
  • There should be a commitment not to withdraw the publication by the author(s).
  • The publication must be publicly available, i.e. available to any member of the public on demand as of right, whether for payment of a fee or not.
  • The publication should have stable identifiers.

Works Cited

Halliday, L. (2001). Scholarly communication, scholarly publication and the status of emerging formats.Information Research, 6(4). Retrieved from: Available at: http://InformationR.net/ir/paper111.html


Start here to explore topics for your paper and collect background information.


Once you have your topic, try the following databases to find more specific information for your paper.

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.


ANNOTATIONS VS. ABSTRACTS

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.


THE PROCESS

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.


CRITICALLY APPRAISING THE BOOK, ARTICLE, OR DOCUMENT

For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources. For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources.


CHOOSING THE CORRECT FORMAT FOR THE CITATIONS

Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page.


SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE

The following example uses APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010) for the journal citation:

Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51, 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

This example uses MLA style (MLA Handbook, 8th edition, 2016) for the journal citation:

Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.


From Olin Library Reference Research & Learning Services Cornell University Library Ithaca, NY, USA and used with permission.

Permission to use this work is based on the conditions of the Creative Commons Commons Deed, version 2.0 regarding attribution, noncommercial use, and "Share Alike" reuse. See the Commons Deed for further details.

First Page

 

Body of Paper

 

 

Body of Paper with Image

 

Body of Paper with Graph

 

Works Cited Page

MLA Eighth Edition

The latest edition of the MLA Handbook focuses on the elements common to most publications through the use of one standard citation format. There are no special instructions for a particular media type (e.g., book, magazine, journal, or tweet) and there may be more than one way to document a publication depending on how you used the source. The ultimate goal is to provide enough information for the reader to locate your source.


MLA’s Universal Citation Format

Author. "Title of Source." Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher,

Publication Date, Location. [Title of Container 2, Other Contributors, Version, Number,

Publisher, Publication Date, Location.]


What is a “container?”

MLA uses the word “container” to refer to the larger body of work from which the documented source originates.

For example, Melissa uses information from a chapter in a psychology textbook for her research paper. The title of the chapter is the source and the title of the book is the container:

A source may have more than one container depending on how it is accessed.

For example, Tom uses an episode of a TV series that is available on Netflix for his research paper. The series title is the first container and Netflix is the second container.

As another example, Kim uses an article he finds in an online database for his research paper. The journal title is the first container and EBSCO is the second container.


What are “other contributors?”

Other contributors are individuals other than the author that are important to include in a citation. In the above example, Tom may be discussing particular performances in the Gossip Girl episode and would include the actors in his citation:

Common descriptions for contributions include: adapted by, directed by, edited by, illustrated by, introduction by, narrated by, performance by, and translated by.


What is a “version?”

A version can be an edition, revision, abridged/unabridged or other special format of the source. Some examples:


What does "location" mean?

The location may be page numbers, a web address or a DOI. It is not the publisher's city.


What about the date of access?

It is important to include the date an item was accessed if there is potential for change to or removal of the item, such as websites or social media posts. This is also important to include if there is no date of publication. Including the date of access will help the reader further understand which version of the item you are using. 

For example, Tom may want to include the date of access for his TV show since Netflix frequently adds and removes content:


A few more examples

For a website with no author and no publication date, start the citation with the title of the source:

For an organization as an author, place the name of the organization as the author:

For two authors, list the authors as they appear on the work. The first author is listed last name, first name and the second author is listed first name last name:

For three or more authors, list the first author last name, first name followed by et al.:


It may be helpful to use a template to gather necessary information. A downloadable template is available on the last tab in the MLA section of this website.

Core Elements‚Äč

 

 

 

 

 

 


Citation Formatting Tips:

  • Place a period after the Author, Title of Source if it is part of a larger work, and last item in the container.
  • Place a comma after the items that follow the container.
  • A title is placed in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. (e.g., essay, story, poem, chapter, song, photograph or scene).
  • A title is placed in italics if the title is self-contained (e.g., book, album, play, movie.).
  • Use a DOI, or digital object identifier, instead of a web address (URL) when possible. The DOI is listed in the article’s information page in an online database.

Works Cited Page Formatting:

  • The works cited page is located at the end of the body of the paper on a new page and must be double spaced.
  • The page must have the title "Works Cited" in the center of the page. It may not be bolded, within quotation marks, italicized, underlined, or in a larger font.
  • The entries must be alphabetized.
  • The first line of each entry must be flush with the left margin. If a citation is more than one line, each line after the first line shall be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.

 

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Sevastopoulos, Julie. “Citing Sources.” Grammar-Quizzes, 2016, www.grammar-quizzes.com/writing_citations.html.

Visit the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for more writing and MLA help.


Contact the MCC Library if you need help finding or evaluating sources.

During fall and spring semesters, the Library is open Monday - Thursday from 8:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M. and Friday from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

You can also email askalibrarian@mohave.edu.


Contact the Student Success Center if you need help writing, editing or formatting your paper.

During fall and spring semesters, tutors are available Monday - Thursday from 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. and Friday from 10:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. 

SmartThinking online tutoring also has tutors who will review your paper. You can access SmartThinking through Schoology at the bottom of the lefthand toolbar.


MCC Connect can transfer your call to the Library, Student Success Center or your professor. Call 866-664-2832.

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