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English 101 (Holland)

English 101 (Holland)


What are the characteristics of a scholarly publication in the digital age?

Web publishing has complicated the identification of scholarly communications. Traditional cues such as publisher, press, and durability are no longer constant in the world of digital, scholarly communications. Findings from Leah Halliday’s work with scholars, librarians, and researchers has identified three characteristics to look for in a publication:

Trustworthiness

  • Scholarly Publications, such as articles and books, should not be changed after digital distribution.  
  • Different versions should be clearly identified so as to alert the community to changes.
  • To satisfy all potential interest, trustworthiness should be based on 'institutionalised' measures such as peer review and this process should be evident to the community.
  • Each publication should have at least one identifiable author.

Publicity

  • The potential audience must be made aware that the publication exists. Libraries are great partners for publicity.
  • The publication should have metadata containing a minimum set of information, preferably including information about all versions. Metadata will enable others to find it.

Accessibility

  • The author must intend that the publication be made publicly available in a durable form over the long term.
  • The publication must be durably recorded on some medium.
  • The publication must be reliably accessible and retrievable over time. Supporting institutions have a responsibility to support long-term accessibility.
  • There should be a commitment not to withdraw the publication by the author(s).
  • The publication must be publicly available, i.e. available to any member of the public on demand as of right, whether for payment of a fee or not.
  • The publication should have stable identifiers.

Works Cited

Halliday, L. (2001). Scholarly communication, scholarly publication and the status of emerging formats.Information Research, 6(4). Retrieved from: Available at: http://InformationR.net/ir/paper111.html


Start here to explore topics for your paper and collect background information:


Once you have your topic, try the following databases to find more specific information for your paper:

Avoiding Plagiarism?    

How to Avoid Plagiarism is a 4 minute video created by Excelsior OWL that describes the act of plagiarism and differentiates between paraphrasing and quoting. 

Examples of Acceptable and Unacceptable Paraphrasing  

The examples below will show you how paraphrase correctly. They're adapted from Paraphrasing by University Libraries, University of Arizona with its gracious permission.

Here's the original text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.:

The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.

Here's an unacceptable paraphrase:

The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

What makes this passage plagiarism?

This is unacceptable paraphrasing because the writer has:

  • only changed a few words and phrases
  • only changed the order of the original's sentences
  • failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts

Here's an acceptable paraphrase:

Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the U.S., they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (Williams 1).

Why is this passage acceptable?

  • accurately relays the information in the original using his/her own words
  • lets the reader know the source of information

Here's an another acceptable paraphrase, using a quotation and paraphrase together:

Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. As steam-powered production shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into factory workers" and created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populations increased the size of urban areas. Fall River was one of these manufacturing hubs that were also "centers of commerce and trade" (Williams 1).

Why is this passage acceptable?

  • accurately records the information in the original passage
  • gives credit for the ideas in this passage
  • indicated which part is taken directly from the source by putting the passage in quotation marks and citing the page number

 Strategies for avoiding plagiarism

1. Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text, especially when taking notes.

2. When you paraphrase, be sure you're not just rearranging or replacing a few words. Instead, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully; cover up the text with your hand, or close the text so you can't see any of it (and so aren't tempted to use the text as a "guide"). Write out the idea in your own words without peeking.

3. Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you haven't accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.

This MLA 8th edition template is a Microsoft Word (.docx) file. After downloading, click "Enable Editing" at the top of the screen to begin using the template.


First Page

 

Body of Paper

 

 

Body of Paper with Image

 

Body of Paper with Graph

 

Works Cited Page

MLA Eighth Edition

The latest edition of the MLA Handbook focuses on the elements common to most publications through the use of one standard citation format. There are no special instructions for a particular media type (e.g., book, magazine, journal, or tweet) and there may be more than one way to document a publication depending on how you used the source. The ultimate goal is to provide enough information for the reader to locate your source.


MLA’s Universal Citation Format

Author. "Title of Source." Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher,

Publication Date, Location. [Title of Container 2, Other Contributors, Version, Number,

Publisher, Publication Date, Location.]


What is a “container?”

MLA uses the word “container” to refer to the larger body of work from which the documented source originates.

For example, Melissa uses information from a chapter in a psychology textbook for her research paper. The title of the chapter is the source and the title of the book is the container:

A source may have more than one container depending on how it is accessed.

For example, Tom uses an episode of a TV series that is available on Netflix for his research paper. The series title is the first container and Netflix is the second container.

As another example, Kim uses an article he finds in an online database for his research paper. The journal title is the first container and EBSCO is the second container.


What are “other contributors?”

Other contributors are individuals other than the author that are important to include in a citation. In the above example, Tom may be discussing particular performances in the Gossip Girl episode and would include the actors in his citation:

Common descriptions for contributions include: adapted by, directed by, edited by, illustrated by, introduction by, narrated by, performance by, and translated by.


What is a “version?”

A version can be an edition, revision, abridged/unabridged or other special format of the source. Some examples:


What does "location" mean?

The location may be page numbers, a web address or a DOI. It is not the publisher's city.


What about the date of access?

It is important to include the date an item was accessed if there is potential for change to or removal of the item, such as websites or social media posts. This is also important to include if there is no date of publication. Including the date of access will help the reader further understand which version of the item you are using. 

For example, Tom may want to include the date of access for his TV show since Netflix frequently adds and removes content:


A few more examples

For a website with no author and no publication date, start the citation with the title of the source:

For an organization as an author, place the name of the organization as the author:

For two authors, list the authors as they appear on the work. The first author is listed last name, first name and the second author is listed first name last name:

For three or more authors, list the first author last name, first name followed by et al.:


It may be helpful to use a template to gather necessary information. A downloadable template is available on the last tab in the MLA section of this website.

Core Elements‚Äč

 

 

 

 

 

 


Citation Formatting Tips:

  • Place a period after the Author, Title of Source if it is part of a larger work, and last item in the container.
  • Place a comma after the items that follow the container.
  • A title is placed in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. (e.g., essay, story, poem, chapter, song, photograph or scene).
  • A title is placed in italics if the title is self-contained (e.g., book, album, play, movie.).
  • Use a DOI, or digital object identifier, instead of a web address (URL) when possible. The DOI is listed in the article’s information page in an online database.

Works Cited Page Formatting:

  • The works cited page is located at the end of the body of the paper on a new page and must be double spaced.
  • The page must have the title "Works Cited" in the center of the page. It may not be bolded, within quotation marks, italicized, underlined, or in a larger font.
  • The entries must be alphabetized.
  • The first line of each entry must be flush with the left margin. If a citation is more than one line, each line after the first line shall be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.

 

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Sevastopoulos, Julie. “Citing Sources.” Grammar-Quizzes, 2016, www.grammar-quizzes.com/writing_citations.html.

Visit the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for more MLA help.


Contact the MCC Library if you need help finding or evaluating sources.

During fall and spring semesters, the Library is open Monday - Thursday from 8:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M. and Friday from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

You can also email askalibrarian@mohave.edu.


Contact the Student Success Center if you need help writing, editing or formatting your paper or citations.

During fall and spring semesters, tutors are available Monday - Thursday from 9:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M. and Friday from 10:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. 

SmarThinking online tutoring also has tutors who will review your paper. You can access SmarThinking through Schoology at the bottom of the lefthand toolbar.


MCC Connect can transfer your call to the Library, Student Success Center or your professor. Call 866-664-2832.